Inappropriate selection for jobs, promotions and training

This can occur at any level of the health system, from individuals based in health ministries to healthcare providers in local health facilities.

In some health systems payments are required to get a job in the public healthcare sector and then for every subsequent promotion. In others, some jobs and promotions may be based on personal connections, which can simply involve hiring a family member or friend. It could also include politicians selecting appointees for jobs based on their personal connections with individuals; this is particularly prevalent with high profile positions such as directors of hospitals or national medical agencies.

This corruption type will affect the quality of healthcare provided by health facilities. Inexperienced management personnel can result in the mismanagement of budgets and unqualified healthcare workers could lead to the suboptimal delivery of healthcare services and treatments provided to patients. Furthermore, healthcare workers may seek to reclaim the money spent to purchase a job through corrupt practices in their line of work, such as demanding bribes from patients wanting to receive care.